[tippy title=”Acharya, Amitav.” header=”on” width=”475″ height=”425″]

Acharya-Whose Ideas Matter? Agency and Power in Asian Regionalism

Whose Ideas Matter?

is the first book to explore the diffusion of ideas and norms in the international system from the perspective of local actors, with Asian regional institutions as its main focus. 

There’s no Asian equivalent of the EU or of NATO. Why has Asia, and in particular Southeast Asia, avoided such multilateral institutions? Most accounts focus on U.S. interests and perceptions or intraregional rivalries to explain the design and effectiveness of regional institutions in Asia such as SEATO, ASEAN, and the ASEAN Regional Forum. Amitav Acharya instead foregrounds the ideas of Asian policymakers, including their response to the global norms of sovereignty and nonintervention. Asian regional institutions are shaped by contestations and compromises involving emerging global norms and the preexisting beliefs and practices of local actors. 

Acharya terms this perspective “constitutive localization” and argues that international politics is not all about Western ideas and norms forcing their way into non-Western societies while the latter remain passive recipients. Rather, ideas are conditioned and accepted by local agents who shape the diffusion of ideas and norms in the international system. Acharya sketches a normative trajectory of Asian regionalism that constitutes an important contribution to the global sovereignty regime and explains a remarkable continuity in the design and functions of Asian regional institutions. 

[/tippy] Whose Ideas Matter? Agency and Power in Asian Regionalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009.

[tippy title=”Alagappa, Muthiah, ed. ” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”365″]

Alagappa-Asian Security Order: Instrumental and Normative Features

More than a decade has passed since the end of the Cold War, but Asia still faces serious security challenges. These include the current security environment in the Korean peninsula, across the Taiwan Strait, and over Kashmir, the danger of nuclear and missile proliferation, and the concern with the rising power of China and with American dominance. Indeed, some experts see Asia as a dangerous and unstable place. Alagappa disagrees, maintaining that Asia is a far more stable, predictable, and prosperous region than it was in the post-independence period. This volume also takes account of the changed security environment in Asia since September 11, 2001.


Unlike many areas-studies approaches, Alagappa’s work makes a strong case for taking regional politics and security dynamics seriously from both theoretical and empirical approaches. The first part of this volume develops an analytical framework for the study of order; the salience of the different pathways to order is examined in the second part; the third investigates the management of specific security issues; and the final part discusses the nature of security order in Asia.

[/tippy]Asian Security Order: Instrumental and Normative Features. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003.

[tippy title=”Alagappa, Muthiah. ” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”410″]

Alagappa-Asian Security Practice: Material and Ideational Influences

The book undertakes an ethnographic, country-by-country study of how Asian states conceive of their security. For each country, it identifies and explains the security concerns and behavior of central decision makers, asking who or what is to be protected, against what potential threats, and how security policies have changed over time. This inside-out or bottom-up approach facilitates both identification of similarities and differences in the security thinking and practice of Asian countries and exploration of their consequences. The crucial insights into the dynamics of international security in the region provided by this approach can form the basis for further inquiry, including debates about the future of the region.

The book is in three parts. Part I critically reviews and appraises the debate over defining security and provides a historical overview of international politics in Asia. Part II investigates security practices in sixteen Asian countries, the countries selected and grouped on the basis of security independence. Based on the findings of the country studies and drawing on other published works, Part III compares the national practices with a view to identifying and explaining key characteristics of Asian security practice and conceptualization on the basis of the Asian experiences.

 [/tippy] Asian Security Practice: Material and Ideational Influences. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998.

[tippy title=”Bert, Wayne.” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”330″]

Bert-The United States, China and Southeast Asian Security: A Changing of the GuardIn The United States, China and Southeast Asian Security, Wayne Bert examines the potential effects of of a rising China and its relations with the United States on security in the region. If China’s economy continues to grow rapidly and its efforts to increase air and sea power are successful, China may be able to successfully challenge US influence in East and Southeast Asia. Potential for conflict between the US and China still exists both over Chinese claims to the Spratly Islands and the aftermath of contention over Taiwan. However, the growing commitment of Southeast Asia to economic development and the expansion of regional institutions has increased the potential for a peaceful power transition. Whether the outcome is peaceful or turbulent will depend upon the policies of both the US and China, but if conflict in Southeast Asia is avoided during this transition a model for the rest of East Asia may develop. [/tippy] The United States, China and Southeast Asian Security: A Changing of the Guard?” Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

[tippy title=”Borthwick, Mark.” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”285″]

borthrick-Pacific Century: The Emergence of Modern Pacific AsiaThe Asia-Pacific region is rapidly emerging as the global economic and political powerhouse of the twenty-first century. Looking at both Southeast and East Asia, this richly illustrated volume stresses broad, cross-cutting themes of regional history, with an emphasis on the interactions between cultures and nations. In this updated third edition, Pacific Century provides a significantly revised introduction, which places the contemporary rise of China within the context of the political, cultural and economic evolution of the region since ancient times. The text then considers more recent developments in their historical context, balancing national and international factors underlying Asia-Pacific economic growth and political change.

[/tippy] Pacific Century: The Emergence of Modern Pacific Asia. Boulder: Westview Press, 1998.

[tippy title=”Buckley, Cynthia J., Blair A Ruble, and Erin Trouth Hofmann, eds.” header=”on” width=”490″ height=”370″]

Buckley.Ruble.Hofmann-Migration, Homeland, and Belonging in Eurasia. Migration, a force throughout the world, has special meanings in the former Soviet lands. Soviet successor countries, each with strong ethnic associations, have pushed some racial groups out and pulled others back home. Forcible relocations of the Stalin era were reversed, and areas previously closed for security reasons were opened to newcomers. These countries represent a fascinating mix of the motivations and achievements of migration in Russia and Central Asia. Migration, Homeland, and Belonging in Eurasia examines patterns of migration and sheds new light on government interests, migrant motivations, historical precedents, and community identities. The contributors come from a variety of disciplines: political science, sociology, history, and geography. Initial chapters offer overall assessments of contemporary migration debates in the region. Subsequent chapters feature individual case studies that highlight continuity and change in migration debates in imperial and Soviet periods. Several chapters treat specific topics in Central Eurasia and the Far East, such as the movement of ethnic Kazakhs from Mongolia to Kazakhstan and the continuing attractiveness to migrants of supposedly uneconomical cities in Siberia. [/tippy] Migration, Homeland, and Belonging in Eurasia. Washington D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2008.

[tippy title=”Calder, Kent E. and Francis Fukuyama, eds. ” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”305″]

Calder.Fukuyama-East Asian Multilateralism: Prospects for Regional Stability

In East Asian Multilateralism, prominent international foreign affairs scholars examine the range of implications of shifting alignments in East Asia. The first part delves into the intraregional dynamics, and the second assesses current economic conditions and policies within individual East Asian states. The third section examines the challenge of regional cooperation from the perspectives of local players, while the fourth analyzes the implications for foreign policy in the United States and in Asia.

This thorough review and assessment charts the preconditions and prospects for deeper multilateralism, poses tough questions about America’s security and national interests in the region, and carries a plea for more serious institution-building in the North Pacific, using the ongoing six-party process in talks on North Korea as a point of departure.

[/tippy]East Asian Multilateralism: Prospects for Regional Stability. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.

[tippy title=”Cohen, Warren I. and Akira Iriye.” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”305″]

Cohen.Iriye-The Great Powers in East Asia, 1953-1960The Great Powers of East Asia: 1953-1960 are written by some of the world’s leading scholars. They contain new information, fresh insights, and useful analyses. The first series of essays focuses on the evolution of American policy. American historians examine the workings of the the Department of State and the Pentagon, and an American and a Chinese analyze the foreign economic policy of the Eisenhower administration in East Asia. The second series of essays is Japan-centered. Together these essays constitute an important contribution to the writing of international history. The contributors reveal the levels of understanding the major powers has of each other and of the smaller nations of the region, informed by different national experiences. The threads they weave together create a far richer tapestry than a national or binational approach could ever produce. [/tippy] The Great Powers in East Asia, 1953-1960. New York: Columbia University Press,1990.

[tippy title=”Collet, Christian and Pei-te Lien, eds.” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”430″]

Collet.Lien-The Transnational Politics of Asian AmericansAs America’s most ethnically diverse foreign-born population, Asian Americans can puzzle political observers. This volume’s multidisciplinary team of contributors employ a variety of methodologies— including quantitative, ethnographic, and historical—to illustrate how transnational ties between the U.S. and Asia have shaped, and are increasingly defining, Asian American politics in our multicultural society.

Original essays by U.S.- and Asian-based scholars discuss Cambodian, Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese communities from Boston to Honolulu. The volume also shows how the grassroots activism of America’s “newest minority” both reflects and is instrumental in broader processes of political change throughout the Pacific. Addressing the call for more global approaches to racial and ethnic politics, contributors describe how Asian immigrants strategically navigate the hurdles to domestic incorporation and equality by turning their political sights and energies toward Asia. These essays convincingly demonstrate that Asian American political participation in the U.S. does not consist simply of domestic actions with domestic ends.

Contributors include: Eiichiro Azuma, Augusto Espiritu, Hiroko Furuya, Peter Kiang, Ikumi Koakutsu, Michel Laguerre, Sangay Mishra, Hiromi Monobe, Shirley Tang, Tritia Toyota, Janelle Wong, and the editors. [/tippy] The Transnational Politics of Asian Americans. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009.

[tippy title=”Denoon, David B.H.” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”330″]

Denoon-The Economic and Strategic Rise of China and India: Asian Realignments after the 1997 Financial CrisisImportant economic and strategic realignments are taking place in Asia but receiving relatively limited press and academic attention. Thailand, Indonesia, and South Korea were dealt, well publicized, blows by the 1997 Asian financial crisis and Japan’s stagnation in the 1990s has also been widely analyzed. What has not been adequately explored is the impact of economic restructuring and slowing of growth rates in the other Pacific Rim economies, notably Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore. Although China’s rise to prominence has received extensive commentary from journalists, economists and strategic analysts, much more limited attention has been given to the relative decline of the Pacific Rim states or the rapid rise of India’s economic and strategic position. This volume attempts to explain why the 1997 financial crisis was such a critical turning point and, unexpectedly, ended up stimulating trade and investment within Asia.

[/tippy] The Economic and Strategic Rise of China and India: Asian Realignments after the 1997 Financial Crisis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

[tippy title=”Emmott, Bill.” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”350″]

Emmott-How the Power Struggle Between China, India and Japan Will Shape Our Next DecadeThe former editor in chief of the Economist returns to the territory of his best-selling book The Sun Also Sets to lay out an entirely fresh analysis of the growing rivalry between China, India, and Japan and what it will mean for America, the global economy, and the twenty-first-century world.

Though books such as The World Is Flat and China Shakes the World consider them only as individual actors, Emmott argues that these three political and economic giants are closely intertwined by their fierce competition for influence, markets, resources, and strategic advantage. Rivals explains and explores the ways in which this sometimes bitter rivalry will play out over the next decade—in business, global politics, military competition, and the environment—and reveals the efforts of the United States to manipulate and benefit from this rivalry. Identifying the biggest risks born of these struggles, Rivals also outlines the ways these risks can and should be managed by all of us. [/tippy] Rivals: How the Power Struggle Between China, India and Japan Will Shape Our Next Decade. San Diego, CA, Harcourt, 2008.

[tippy title=”Goh, Evelyn and Amitav Acharya.” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”450″] 

Goh.Acharya-Reassessing Security Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific: Competition, Congruence, and TransformationSince the 1990s, Asia-Pacific countries have changed their approaches to security cooperation and regional order. The end of the Cold War, the resurgence of China, the Asian economic crisis, and the events of September 11, 2001, have all contributed to important changes in the Asia-Pacific security architecture. In addition to the traditional bilateral security arrangements based on the US “hub and spokes” alliance system, there has been an increase in multilateral efforts, including the ASEAN Regional Forum, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Shangri-la dialogue of defense ministers, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. But because of their varying membership, scope, and mandates, these new arrangements have suffered from a lack of coordination.

This volume reassesses security cooperation in the region in light of such recent developments as the emergence of new roles for existing institutions, the rise of new institutions, challenges to existing norms of regional interaction, increasing formalization or legalization of regional institutions, the reconstruction of modes of security cooperation that were once seen as mutually exclusive, and the creation of ad hoc and informal security approaches. The book examines how successful these new arrangements have been, whether there is competition among them, and why some modes of security cooperation have proven more feasible than others. [/tippy] Reassessing Security Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific: Competition, Congruence, and Transformation. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2007.

[tippy title=”Green, Michael J. and Bates Gill, eds.” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”410″] 

Green.Gill-Asia’s New Multilateralism: Cooperation, Competition and the Search for CommunityTraditionally, stability in Asia has relied on America’s bilateral alliances with Japan, Australia, and the Republic of Korea. Yet in recent years, emergent and more active multilateral forums—such as the Six-Party Talks on North Korea and the East Asia Summit—have taken precedence, engendering both cooperation and competition while reflecting the local concerns of the region.

Some are concerned that this process is moving toward less-inclusive, bloc-based “talking shops” and that the future direction and success of these arrangements, along with their implications for global and regional security and prosperity, remain unclear. The fifteen contributors to this volume, all leading scholars in the field, provide national perspectives on regional institutional architecture and their functional challenges. They illuminate areas of cooperation that will move the region toward substantive collaboration, convergence of norms, and strengthened domestic institutions. They also highlight the degree to which institution building in Asia—a region composed of liberal democracies, authoritarian regimes, and anachronistic dictatorships—has become an arena for competition among major powers and conflicting norms, and assess the future shape of Asian security architecture., reviewing a previous edition or volume. [/tippy] Asia’s New Multilateralism: Cooperation, Competition and the Search for Community. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.

[tippy title=”Grimes, William W.” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”285″]

Grimes-Currency and Contest in East Asia: The Great Power Politics of Financial RegionalismIn Currency and Contest in East Asia, William W. Grimes builds on years of primary research and scores of interviews with participants and policy analysts to provide the most accurate, complete, and detailed description available of attempts to build financial cooperation among East Asian countries. Adapting realist political economy theory to the realities of contemporary global finance, Grimes places regional issues firmly in the wider context of great-power rivalries. He argues that financial regionalism can best be understood as one arena for competition among Japan, the United States, and China.

Despite their mutual desire for regional prosperity and economic stability, these three powers have conflicting political interests. Their struggles for regional leadership raise questions about the long-term feasibility of regional financial cooperation, the possible effects of Sino-Japanese rivalry on regional financial stability, and the potential for East Asian financial regionalism to undermine the long-established-albeit waning-global and regional dominance of the United States and the dollar. [/tippy] Currency and Contest in East Asia: The Great Power Politics of Financial Regionalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press: 2008.

[tippy title=”Ikenberry, John G. and Michael Mastanduno, eds.” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”410″] 

Ikenberry.Mastanduno-International Relations Theory and the Asia-PacificSome of the best and most innovative scholars in international relations and Asian area studies gather here with the working premise that stability in the broader Asia-Pacific region is in large part a function of the behavior of, and relationships among, these three major powers. Each author analyzes the foreign policy behavior of one or more of these states and/or relations among them in an effort to make claims about the prospects for regional stability. Some of the chapters focus on security relationships, some on economic relations, and some on the interaction of the two. The authors do not promote any particular theoretical perspective, but instead draw on the full diversity of theoretical approaches in contemporary international relations scholarship to illuminate international interactions among the Pacific powers.

The creative collaboration of international relations and Asian studies specialists presents the opportunity to assess the applicability of Western categories of analysis to the beliefs and behaviors of Asian actors. The scholars in this volume share the conviction that a deeper understanding of the effects of cultural divides between Asian and American policymakers is essential if the Pacific rim’s economic and regional security is to be safeguarded.[/tippy] International Relations Theory and the Asia-Pacific. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

[tippy title=”Latif, Asad.” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”225″] 

Latif-Between Rising Powers: China, Singapore and IndiaGeography has moulded Singapore’s self-definition, much as it has shaped the contours of the rest of Southeast Asia, a region that lies south of China and east of India. Placed within overlapping Sinic and Indic zones, Singapore’s entrepôt role has served both. Today, as China and India emerge simultaneously as rising powers, a port city is going beyond its trading role to engage them in political and security terms. This book combines diplomatic history and international relations theory to show how Singapore is facilitating China’s and India’s engagement of Southeast Asia.

[/tippy] Between Rising Powers: China, Singapore and India. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2007.

[tippy title=”Lim, Robyn.” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”250″]

Lim-The Geopolitics of East Asia: The Search for EquilibriumSince the Cold War ended, East Asia has become the global focus of unresolved strategic tensions among the great powers. These tensions focus on the Korean peninsula, the Taiwan Strait and the South China Sea, and have an important maritime dimension. This book presents a comprehensive overview of the geopolitics of the region. It focuses in particular on the way geographic and historical forces continue to play a key role in shaping international relations here. It considers the role of both regional and international powers, and assesses the risks of war in the region. [/tippy] The Geopolitics of East Asia: The Search for Equilibrium. New York: Routledge, 2005.

[tippy title=”Narlikar, Amrita.” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”410″] 

Narlikar-New Powers: How to Become One and How to Manage Them

Being new is never easy, especially in the anarchic world of international politics. New powers such as Brazil, China, and India have navigated difficult terrain as they negotiate their way to the top, signaling a sufficient level of conformity to diffuse tensions and avoid preemptive reprisals. Yet habitually conciliatory diplomacy can cast an emerging state as a lightweight or a pushover. Effective bargaining is therefore the key to balancing these extremes.

Established powers also need straightforward solutions to pressing dilemmas. If the aims of a new power are limited, then engagement is a worthwhile enterprise. If its aims are radically revisionist or revolutionary, then established powers may have to contain it. Assessing the intentions of new powers and responding appropriately is crucial for the maintenance of international peace. In this enlightening study, Amrita Narlikar pinpoints successful negotiating strategies for rising powers. Focusing on three of the most important candidates now vying for international recognition—Brazil, China, and India—she underscores the commonalities in their diplomatic efforts and isolates the striking differences. Her study aids both emerging players and established countries struggling to reconcile evolving balances of power.[/tippy] New Powers: How to Become One and How to Manage Them. London: Hurst Publications, and New York: Columbia University Press, 2010.

[tippy title=”Scalapino, Robert.” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”400″]

Scalapino-Asia & the Major Powers: Implications for the International Order

[/tippy] Asia & the Major Powers: Implications for the International Order. Washington, D.C.: AEI, 1972.

[tippy title=”Shambaugh, David and Michael Yahuda, eds. ” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”270″]

Shambaugh.Yahuda-International Relations of AsiaAs the world’s most vital region, Asia embodies explosive economic growth, diverse political systems, vibrant societies, modernizing militaries, cutting-edge technologies, rich cultural traditions amid globalization, and strategic competition among major powers. As a result, international relations in Asia are evolving rapidly. In this deeply informed study, leading scholars offer the most current and definitive analysis available of Asia’s regional relationships. They set developments in Asia in theoretical context, assess the role of leading external and regional powers, and consider the importance of subregional actors and linkages. Students and policy practitioners alike will find this book invaluable for understanding politics in contemporary Asia. [/tippy] International Relations of Asia. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008.

[tippy title=”Sharma, Shalendra D.” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”330″]

Sharma-China and India in the Age of GlobalizationThe rise of China and India is the story of our times. The unprecedented expansion of their economic and power capabilities raises profound questions for scholars and policymakers. What forces propelled these two Asian giants into global pacesetters, and what does their emergence mean for the United States and the world? With intimate detail, Shalendra D. Sharma’s China and India in the Age of Globalization explores how the interplay of socio-historical, political, and economic forces has transformed these once poor agrarian societies into economic powerhouses. This book examines the challenges both countries face and what each must do to strike the balance between reaping the opportunities and mitigating the risks. For the United States, assisting a rising China to become a responsible global stakeholder and fostering peace and stability in the volatile subcontinent will be paramount in the coming years.[/tippy] China and India in the Age of Globalization. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

[tippy title=”Suh, J. J., Peter J. Katzenstein and Allen Carlson, eds.” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”390″]

Suh.Katzenstein.Carlson-Rethinking Security in East Asia: Identity, Power, and EfficiencyIs East Asia heading toward war? Throughout the 1990s, conventional wisdom among U.S. scholars of international relations held that institutionalized cooperation in Europe fosters peace, while its absence from East Asia portends conflict. Developments in Europe and Asia in the 1990s contradict the conventional wisdom without discrediting it. Explanations that derive from only one paradigm or research program have shortcomings beyond their inability to recognize important empirical anomalies. International relations research is better served by combining explanatory approaches from different research traditions.

This book makes a case for a new theoretical approach (called “analytical eclecticism” by the authors) to the study of Asian security. It informs the analysis in subsequent chapters of central topics in East Asian security, with specific reference to China, Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asia. The authors conclude that the prospects for peace in East Asia look less dire than conventional—in many cases Eurocentric—theories of international relations suggest. At the same time, they point to a number of potentially destabilizing political developments. [/tippy] Rethinking Security in East Asia: Identity, Power, and Efficiency. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004.

[tippy title=”Tow, William T. ed.” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”330″] 

Tow-Security Politics in the Asia-Pacific: A Regional Global Nexus?Asia is experiencing major changes in its security relations. This book brings together respected experts to assess both the theoretical and empirical dimensions of the Asian security debate. Building on the latest research on Asia’s regional security politics, it focuses on the ‘regional-global nexus’ as a way to understand the dynamics of Asian security politics and its intersection with global security. Contributors to the volume offer diverse but complementary perspectives on which issues and factors are most important in explaining how security politics in Asia can be interpreted at both the regional and global levels of analysis. Issues addressed include power balancing and alliances, governance and democracy, maritime and energy security, the relationship between economics and security, ‘human security’, terrorism, nuclear non-proliferation, climate change and pandemics. This work will serve as a standard reference on the evolution of key issues in Asian security.[/tippy] Security Politics in the Asia-Pacific: A Regional Global Nexus? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

[tippy title=”Yahuda, Michael.” header=”on” width=”450″ height=”325″]Yahuda-The International Politics of the Asia-Pacific

This fully revised second/third edition of Michael Yahuda’s extremely successful textbook brings the region fully up-to-date, introducing students to the international politics of the Asia-Pacific region since 1945.

The second edition features the current role of East Asia in world affairs, prospects post-2000, the strengths and weaknesses of US dominance and the challenge of other powers, and prospects for and implications of an East Asian economic recovery.

The third edition features in-depth discussion of the Bush administration’s legacy and where the Obama administration’s vision takes their policy, analysis of post-Koizumi/post-Abe Japan, examination of the continued rise of China in terms of politics, security and economic dominance, ongoing debates concerning the ‘war on terror’ and how this shifts, forms and reforms relationship, asia-Pacific security issues[/tippy] The International Politics of the Asia-Pacific. London: Routledge, 2004.

Book chapter

Nau, Henry R. “Identity and the Balance of Power in Asia,” in International Relations Theory and the Asia-Pacific, eds. G. John Ikenberry, Michael Mastanduno. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.


Acharya, Amitav. “Can Asia Lead? Power Ambitions and Global Governance in the 21st Century.” International Affairs 87, no. 4 (2011): 851-869. (PDF)

Acharya, Amitav. “Will Asia’s Past Be Its Future?” International Security 28, no. 3 (Winter 2003/04): 149-164. (PDF)

Acharya, Amitav and Barry Buzan. “Preface: Why is there no Non-Western IR Theory: Reflections on and from Asia.” International Relations of the Asia Pacific 7, no. 3 (2007): 285-285.(PDF)

Thomas C. Berger. “Set for Stability? Prospects for Conflict and Cooperation in East Asia.” Review of International Studies 26, no. 3 (July 2000): 405-428. (PDF)

Betts, Richard K. “Wealth, Power, and Instability: East Asia and the United States after the Cold War.” International Security 18,3 (Winter 1993/94): 34-77. (PDF)

Buzan, Barry and Gerald Segal. “Rethinking East Asian Security.” Survival 36, no. 2 (Summer 1994) (PDF)

Cha, Victor D. “The New Geometry of Asian Architecture: What Works and What Does Not.” Center for Strategic and International Studies, Jan. 2010.(PDF)

Emmerson, Donald K. “Asian Regionalism and U.S. Policy: The Case for Creative Adaptation.” RSIS Working Paper No. 193 (Mar 2010). (PDF)

Friedberg, Aaron L. “Ripe for Rivalry: Prospects for Peace in a Multipolar Asia.” International Security 18, no. 3 (Winter 1993/4): 5-33. (PDF)

Friedberg, Aaron L. “Will Europe’s Past Be Asia’s Future?” Security 42, no. 3 (Autumn 2000): 147-59. (PDF)

Hemmer, Christopher M. and Peter J. Katzenstein. “Why is There No NATO in Asia? Collective Identity, Regionalism, and the Origins of Multilateralism.” International Organization 56, no. 3 (Summer 2002): 575-607. (PDF)

Hopf, Ted. “The Promise of Constructivism in International Relations Theory.” International Security 23, no. 1 (Summer 1998): 171-200. (PDF)

Kang, David C. “Getting Asia Wrong: The Need for New Analytical Frameworks.” International Security 27, no. 4 (Spring 2003):57-85. (PDF)

Kurth, James R. “The Pacific Basis versus the Atlantic Alliance: Two Paradigms of International Relations,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 505 (Sep. 1989): 34-45. (PDF)

Noble, Gregory W. “Japanese and American Perspectives on East Asian Regionalism.” International Relations of the Asia-Pacific 8, no. 2 (2008): 247-262. (PDF)

Thompson, Mark R. “Whatever Happened to “Asian Values”?” Journal of Democracy 12, no. 4 (Oct. 2001):154-165.(PDF)